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Genre, corps et sexualité dans l’espace (post-)ottoman

  • Fabio Giomi, chargé de recherche au CNRS ( CETOBaC )

    Cet enseignant est référent pour cette UE

  • Sümbül Kaya, postdoctorante, ANR EODIPAR (expériences des discriminations, participation et représentation) ( Hors EHESS )
  • Ozan Soybakis, doctorante à l'EHESS ( CESPRA )
  • Ece Zerman, doctorante contractuelle à l'EHESS ( CETOBaC )

S'il s'agit de l'enseignement principal d'un enseignant, le nom de celui-ci est indiqué en gras.

2e mardi du mois de 16 h à 19 h (salle 3, RdC, bât. Le France, 190-198 av de France 75013 Paris), du 8 novembre 2016 au 13 juin 2017. Les séances des 14 février et 14 mars se dérouleront en salle 015, RdC, bât. Le France. Séances supplémentaires les 23 février, 26 avril et 23 mai (de 16 h à 19 h, salle 015, bât. Le France)

Les séances des 26 avril, 9 mai et 13 juin 2017 se dérouleront en salle AS1_23 (1er sous-sol) 54 bd Raspail 75006 Paris. La séance du 23 mai se déroulera en salle B02_18 (2e étage) 54 bd Raspail 75006 Paris.

Quel rôle l’Empire ottoman a-t-il joué dans la production et la contestation des normes de contrôle du corps et de la sexualité, ainsi que dans l’encadrement des rapports de genre ? Et comment la référence à l’Empire ottoman continue-t-elle à hanter les différents espaces publics qui se sont formés sur le cendres de cette entité politique jusqu’à aujourd’hui ? Depuis au moins le XIXe siècle, moment qui marque la crise militaire, économique et politique de l’Empire et en même temps ses efforts de réformes, le corps est devenu un terrain de confrontation essentiel. En effet, les acteurs étatiques, religieux et de la société civile en formation ont essayé d’inscrire dans les corps des hommes, et surtout des femmes, leurs différents projets politiques, visant à établir différentes loyautés impériales, nationales ou confessionnelles, et à tracer des frontières entre un « nous » et un « autre ». Même aujourd’hui, l’empire reste une référence qui structure de façon significative les espaces publics des Etats post-ottomans, et cette référence est à la fois mobilisée et démobilisée pour promouvoir certains schèmes de pensée sur l’égalité des sexes, les modes de vie genrés/sexués, la sexuation des espaces publics et la reconfiguration des corps.

Ces questions nous ont amené, depuis 2015, à entamer une réflexion collective et pluridisciplinaire autour d’un séminaire de l’EHESS.

Programme première partie

Mardi 8 novembre 2016 : Introduction

  • Première partie : Fabio Giomi, Sümbül Kaya, Ozan Soybakış, Ece Zerman "Le corps (post)ottoman"
  • Seconde partie : intervention de Christelle Taraud "La colonisation a-t-elle un corps ? Réflexion(s) à partir d'un terrain maghrébin (1830-1962)"

Le corps, comme nous le verrons dans cette présentation, est un enjeu fondamental de l'ordre colonial et national français. Un enjeu qui se dit, frontalement ou de manière euphémisée, dans des relations de race, de genre et de classe complexes qui s'exercent entre dominants et dominés, entre colons et colonisés, entre hommes et femmes, entre pauvres et riches. Ici le corps sera donc saisi en même temps comme un "objet en soi" et "à part entière" (et donc placé dans une réflexion épistémologique et conceptuelle sur l'histoire et l'anthropologie du corps) et simultanément comme un "véhicule" de bien d'autres choses qui concernent les rencontres, les hybridations, les tensions, les ambivalences, les contradictions, les violences que rencontrent les sociétés maghrébines en contexte colonial. Réflexion(s) théorique(s) et empirique(s) en même temps, ce questionnement sur le "corps de la colonisation" - pensé entre innovation et conformité, entre permis et interdit, entre licite et illicite - aura aussi vocation à tracer des liens entre ici et là-bas, entre hier et aujourd'hui pour tenter de comprendre en quoi l'héritage du passé peut informer des questionnements très contemporains des deux côtés de la Méditerranée.

Christelle Taraud enseigne dans les programmes parisiens de Columbia et de NYU, et est membre du Centre d'histoire du XIXe siècle (Paris I/Paris IV). Elle travaille notamment sur les femmes, le genre et les sexualités en contexte colonial maghrébin. Elle est par ailleurs l’auteure de La prostitution coloniale. Algérie, Tunisie, Maroc, 1830-1962, Paris Payot, 2003 et 2009 ; de Mauresques. Femmes orientales dans la photographie coloniale (1860-1910), Paris, Albin Michel, 2003 ;  de Femmes d’Afrique du Nord. Cartes postales (1885-1930), Paris, Editions Bleu Autour, 2006 et 2011 ; et de « Amour interdit ». Prostitution, marginalité et colonialisme. Maghreb 1830-1962, Paris, Payot, collection « Petite Bibliothèque Payot », 2012.

Mardi 13 décembre 2016 : Sexualités post-ottomanes 

Première partie : discussion collective des textes suivants

  • Maria Todorova, Imaginaires des Balkans, Editions de l’EHESS, Paris 2011, p. 19-43.
  • Isabelle Clair, « Pourquoi penser la sexualité pour penser le genre en sociologie ? Retour sur quarante ans de réticences », Cahiers du Genre 2013/1 (n° 54), p. 93-120.

Seconde partie : intervention de Piro Rexhepi "Shaming and Straightening (Post)Ottoman Sexualities"

Drawing from queer and postcolonial theory, this paper looks at the representation of queer Muslims in contemporary semi-realistic historical fiction and film to explore the construction of post-Ottoman secular and national heterosexual subject in the Balkans. I argue that complex subjectivities among Muslims in Albania and Bosnia are essentialized and reduced to Eurocentric binary sexualities to promote European belonging. Specifically, I look at how these attempts to incorporate sexual orientations in the service of European orientations change over time to assure Bosnia’s and Albania’s compatibility with dominant European epistemological and ontological categories of gender and sexuality. If in the Albanian historical novel, the shameless queer Muslim is employed in the production of the (post)Ottoman heterosexual European Albanian, in Bosnian film, the queer Muslim is staged as a sexualized victim who can only find salvation by either escaping to Europe or bringing Europe home to Bosnia. Sexual orientations thus are not only articulated and renamed in relation to Europe, but they become the markers of European orientations. In this context, cultural texts trade sexualities in the European postcolonial and post-modern cultural marketplace where the division between history and fiction is neutralized, contributing to the legitimization of larger processes of European enlargement.

Piro Rexhepi is currently a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Gottingen. He holds a PhD in Politics from the University of Strathclyde and an MA in International Relations from the City University of New York. His latest article, "From Orientalism to Homonationalism: Queer Politics, Islamophobia and Europeanization in Kosovo," (Journal of Southeastern Europe) examines the intersection of EU enlargement politics with gender and sexual rights, exploring the resulting production of Islamophobia in Muslim majority countries in the Balkans.

Mardi 10 janvier 2017 : Représenter le corps

Première partie : discussion collective des textes suivants

  • Sirman, Nükhet. 2000. “Gender Constructions and Nationalist Discourse: Dethroning the Father in the Early Turkish Novel,” in Feride Acar and Ayşe Güneş-Ayata (eds.), Gender and Identity Construction: Women of Central Asia, the Caucasus and Turkey, Leiden: Brill, pp. 162-176.
  • Deniz Kandiyoti, “Some Awkward Questions on Women and Modernity in Turkey”, Lila Abu-Lughod (ed.), Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East. Princeton University Press, 1998, pp. 270-87.

Seconde partie : intervention de Dilşa Deniz "Gender roles in the Turkish nation building process: A case study on the novels of Peyami Safa"

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Turkey has been constructed based on modern “Western values”. In the modernization/Westernization project of the new Republic, a daily life in the western style was promoted. In this process, education, art, fashion, literature and social life were transformed accordingly. However, the implementation of this westernizing project also caused resistance. In this communication, I will give an example of such resistance coming from literature, and I will focus on the figure of Peyami Safa (1899-1961) who was one of the most popular Turkish authors of his epoch. More precisely, I will focus on two well-known books of him, Sözde Kızlar and Fatih-Harbiye respectively. In these texts the author focusses on the new social practices of the republican period, and uses women to criticize the new politics. Men and women who practice westernized lifestyle are considered “dangerous” and “immoral”, while those who had a Turkish-Islamic way of life are presented as “good” and “highly moral”. Through these examples, I intend to show how constructing and representing dichotomic gender roles was Safa’s way of dealing with the new politics.

Dilşa Deniz is a socio-cultural anthropologist and the Lecturer in University of New Hampshire. Her academic research focuses on the cultural and religious practices of Alevis Kurdish communities in Turkey. She focuses particularly on the practices and beliefs of Kurdish communities associated with the city of Dersim, an ancient urban center in Anatolia. She has also worked extensively as an activist and organizer for women’s rights and literacy in Turkey. Dr. Deniz holds a Ph.D. in Social Anthropology from Yeditepe University and an M.A in Women’s Studies from Istanbul University. She has published a number of articles and book chapters; her monograph Yol/Rê: Dersim İnanç Sembolizmi Antropolojik Bir Yaklaşım was published by İletişim Press in 2012.

14 février 2017 : Corps et mobilisations politiques

  • Première partie : Discussion collective des textes suivants :
    • Olivier Grojean, « Investissement militant et violence contre soi au sein du Parti des travailleurs du Kurdistan », Cultures & Conflits, 63, Automne 2006, p. 1-12. 
    • Hamit Bozarslan, Une histoire de la violence au Moyen-Orient. De la fin de l'Empire ottoman à Al-Qaida, La Découverte, Paris 2008, chapitre 7.
  • Deuxième partie : intervention de Hamit Bozarslan (EHESS) : « Corps, génération et violence au Moyen-Orient »

L’intervention portera sur les sens politiques que le "corps" prit au cours des derniers cent ans, du pronunciamiento unioniste de 1908 à al-Qaïda et à l’Etat islamique, en passant par les engagements de gauche dans les années 1950-1970.

Hamit Bozarslan, né en 1958 à Lice en Turquie est docteur en histoire (EHESS, 1992) et en sciences politiques (IEP, 1994). Il a été allocataire de recherche au Centre Marc Bloch (Berlin) entre 1995 et 1997 et « visiting fellow » à Princeton en 1998. Elu maitre de conférences (1998), puis directeur d’études (2006) à l’EHESS, il a codirigé l’IISMM (Institut d’études de l’islam et des sociétés du monde musulman) entre 2002 et 2008. Ses recherches actuelles portent sur la sociologie historique et politique du Moyen-Orient.

23 Février 2017 : nommer la sexualité (séance exceptionnelle)

  • Première partie : Discussion collective des textes suivants (à définir)
  • Deuxième partie : intervention de İrvin Cemil Schick (CETOBAC) : « Three Genders, Two Sexualities: the Evidence of Ottoman Erotic Terminology »

It stands to reason that the absence or presence of a particular term should be correlated, albeit not perfectly, with that of a particular concept. In this respect, the fact, for example, that the all-embracing term “homosexual” had no equivalent in the Ottoman language suggests that same-sex relationships were not categorized primarily as such. Rather, Ottoman is extremely rich in terms that signify adult “active” gay men, adult “passive” gay men, boys as the “passive” sexual partners of adult active men, women who take on an “active” role, and so forth. In other words, “homosexuality” as a term that includes both men and women, both young and old, both active and passive did not exist in the Ottoman language, indicating that this was not a meaningful category for Ottoman society.

An analysis of well over six hundred sexually explicit terms culled from Ottoman literary sources dating from the mid-fourteenth century to the mid-nineteenth reveals that one can speak of three main genders (men, women, and boys) and two main sexualities (those who penetrate and those who are penetrated). Since boys grow up to be men, furthermore, these gender and sexual categories were perceived as relatively fluid and as determined by tastes and practices rather than nature and immutable identity. Furthermore, this rich vocabulary and the ways in which it was utilized in context shows that no social censure was attached in Ottoman society to same-sex behavior per se, prior to the advent of western-influenced heteronormativity in the mid-nineteenth century, with the notable exception of adult males who are sexually penetrated. Rather, strictures governed immoderation and immodesty, regardless of whether the sexual acts were homo- or hetero-sexual.

İrvin Cemil Schick was born in Istanbul, Turkey. He holds a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has worked and taught both in the United States and in Turkey. He is currently a doctoral candidate in “History and Civilizations” at the EHESS, working on the seventeenth-century Ottoman Empire. His principal research interests are cultural and intellectual history, the arts of the book, gender and sexuality, and human-animal relations, all in the context of Islam and particularly Turkey. He is the author, editor, or co-editor of eleven books as well as the author or co-author of numerous articles.

14 mars 2017 : Sexualité et engagement politique à l’épreuve de l’intersectionalité - séance commune avec le cycle de séminaires « Genre et Europe »

  • Bojan Bilić (New Europe College, Bucarest), “Sisterhood and Unity: Lesbian Separatism in the Post-Yugoslav Space”.

After almost two highly contentious and sometimes overtly violent decades, 2015 proved to be an annus mirabilis in Serbian and post-Yugoslav LGBT organising. That year not only witnessed a relatively smooth unfolding of the Belgrade Pride Parade which has by now become a matter of course, but the streets of the Serbian (and former Yugoslav) capital also welcomed –  until then unprecedented – Lesbian March and Trans Pride. This surprising diversity of activist undertakings testifies to the vital current of LGBT-related engagement that has survived long periods of both institutionalised and socially widespread homophobia as well as a range of other seriously unfavourable circumstances. On closer inspection, though, such an abundance of activist enterprises also points to an emotionally-charged “underworld” of tensions, frustrations and challenges that local activists face in their efforts to advance the cause of LGBT emancipation.

My lecture draws upon a variety of empirical sources to reconstruct the 2015 Belgrade Lesbian March, and contextualise this rather unusual public gathering both in the history of gay and lesbian organising in the (post-)Yugoslav space as well as in the broader sphere of European and especially Anglo-American lesbian mobilisation. I argue that this lesbian separatist event, on the one hand, increased lesbian visibility both nationally and regionally, but it also created divisions within activist circles that do not seem to work towards the overarching goal of non-heterosexual liberation. While pointing to the importance of gender-sensitive understandings of homophobia and the necessity for producing lesbian-centred scholarship, I claim that public space and emancipatory political contestations that take place within it should remain open and inclusive.   

Bojan is a psychologist and political sociologist doing research on LGBTQ activism and anthropology of non-heterosexual sexualities in the post-Yugoslav space. He is EntE Fellow at the New Europe College, Institute for Advanced Study in Bucharest, Romania, and Adjunct Professor of Gender and Social Movements in South East Europe at the School of Political Sciences, University of Bologna (Forli' Campus). He is former Marie Curie Intra-European Fellow at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research, Centre for Gender and Sexuality Studies, University of Amsterdam.

26 avril : Genre, réseau, sociabilité (séance exceptionnelle)

Première partie : Alice Latouche (EHESS) « Les femmes migrantes et le concept d'intersectionnalité : un combat pour l'autonomie ».

  • Texte à lire pour la discussion : Mirjana Morokvasic "Des femmes au genre en migration", Naqd, 2010/1 n 28, p. 35-54

Deuxième partie : intervention de Veronika Tzankova (Simon Fraser University), « Body politics and online revolts in Turkey »

This presentation explores body politics appearing within Turkish online sexual networks as a counterreaction to the ongoing islamization of the Republic of Turkey. I investigate the ways in which online sexual expression transgresses simple representation of intimate episodes to materialize political protest against the incubation of Islamic ideologies promoted by the current government of Turkey. I argue that online sexual networks along with their communities have introduced new channels of affective, erotic exchanges that re-define the body as a source of pleasure and power. Such libidinal instrumentalization of the body reveals a complex system of cultural politics which challenge Islam through one of its most vulnerable spots - sexuality. From this perspective, Turkish online sexual networks reify the inscription of body politics into a level of social power and significance, where Islamic regulations of sexuality have been demystified. The online sexual networks I examine thus assist the separation of traditional Islamic power models from sexual rationality. Grounded in critical and media theory, this presentation brings into focus the protest-charge of online sexuality within the context of Turkey's revitalization of political Islam. I use sexual narratives posted on Turkish sexual online networks as a vehicle to explore these issues and to emphasize the shifts in sexual rationality and body politics. Such a reading helps shed light on the political potential of sexuality in online environments.

Veronika Tzankova is PhD candidate in the School of Communications at Simon Fraser University (SFU), with a prior MA from the School of Interactive Arts and Technology, also at SFU, and a Bachelor of Civil Law from Istanbul University. Her research - funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) - is in the area of political identity as explored and expressed in online environments, with a focus on Islamic countries and particularly Turkey. She is the editor of Teaching Computational Creativity forthcoming with Cambridge University Press (together with Michael Filimowicz). She has also published articles and book chapters with MIT Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Sage Publications, and Palgrave MacMillan Publishers. Her research has been presented at various conferences such as the Association of Internet Researchers and Association for Cultural Studies.

9 mai 2017 : sexualité et espace

Première partie : Mehdi Benayada (EHESS), « Normes de genre et de sexualité dans le Maroc urbain »

  • Texte à lire pour la discussion : Saba Mahmood, Politique de la piété. Le féminisme à l'épreuve du renouveau islamique, La Découverte, Paris, 2009, p. 11-36.

Deuxième partie : intervention de Samuel Williams (Musée du quai Branly), « Making street: place, embodiment, and the social phenomenology of sexual cruising on Istiklal Street »

Based on ethnographic data from the first decade of the 2000s, this paper examines the relationship between bodily practices of promenading [“making street”] and male same-sex sexual cruising [“wheeling”] along Istiklal Street. Formative anthropological work on the development of gay social scenes in contemporary Islamicate societies, particularly in South East Asia, has suggested that such scenes emerge in social spaces that render same-sex sexual practices “incommensurable” or interpretatively opaque to the norms of wider social life around them. I suggest that the institutional elaboration of a gay social scene in the nightlife market around Istiklal Street has been critically tied to enduring practices of “wheeling” for sex; however, I demonstrate that there are complex interdependencies between these same-sex sexual activities and wider bodily practices of “making street” there which unsettle anthropological notions of radical incommensurability.

  • Texte à lire pour la discussion : Tom Boellstorff, « Between Religion and Desire: Being Muslim and Gay in Indonesia », American Anthropologist, Vol. 107, No. 4 (Dec., 2005), pp. 575-585.

Samuel Williams is a social anthropologist whose research explores intersections between economy and material culture in Turkey. With a particular specialism in markets, his doctoral research (Princeton 2016) with minority traders in Istanbul’s Grand Bazaar and Istiklal Street investigated the transformation of these historically cosmopolitan marketplaces during recent years of economic reform. A postdoctoral fellow at the Musée du quai Branly - Jacques Chirac, his current research scales-up from long-term fieldwork among goldsmiths in the bazaar, and explores the role of diasporic networks of Anatolian artisans and traders in the international market for scrap gold.

23 mai : femmes, modernisation et vie quotidienne (séance exceptionnelle)

Erik-Jan Zürcher (Université de Leiden) « The quest for civilisation »

This seminar will focus on the way the Kemalist programme of spreading modernity and civilization was actually implemented in everyday life. The appearance and public role of women is an important part of the quest for modernity, and a bitterly contested one.

Documents to be commented:

Erik-Jan Zürcher  is primarily interested in the period of transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey (roughly: 1880-1950) and in the role of the Young Turk generation/movement in this process. After a period in which he studied the political history of the period, Erik-Jan Zürcher gradually became more interested in its social history as well. In his view the key to an understanding of the emergence of modern Turkey lies in linking the processes of forced migration, war, the imperial legacy and nation building.

13 juin : bilan

Première partie: Maxime Gosset (EHESS): “L'expression des masculinités à Beyrouth: enquête auprès d'hommes libanais

Deuxième partie: Intervention des étudiant.e.s

Suivi et validation pour le master : Bi/mensuel annuel (24 h = 6 ECTS)

Mentions & spécialités :

Renseignements :

contact : Fabio Giomi par courriel.

Adresse(s) électronique(s) de contact : fabio.giomi(at)gmail.com

Dernière modification de cette fiche par le service des enseignements (sg12@ehess.fr) : 31 mai 2017.

Contact : service des enseignements ✉ sg12@ehess.fr ☎ 01 49 54 23 17 ou 01 49 54 23 28
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